LOOKING @ ZIKA

University of Miami doctors publish study of first locally acquired Zika
transmission

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

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IMAGE: This is a rash on patient's stomach.
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Credit:
The New England Journal of Medicine

Following the recent Zika outbreak in Miami-Dade County, a multidisciplinary
team of physicians with the University of Miami Health System and Miller
School of Medicine published a case study today in
The New England Journal of Medicine, describing in detail the nation's first locally-transmitted case of Zika.

The findings of the case study, titled "Cutaneous Eruption in a U.S.
Woman with Locally Acquired Zika Virus Infection," largely center
on the skin rash associated with the then-23-year-old pregnant patient's
diagnosis and provide a glimpse of the skin manifestations of the Zika
virus. The report may have implications for future Zika screening, diagnoses
and linkage to care throughout the United States and abroad.

"Dermatologists and clinicians had an idea of what the Zika rash looked
like, but it wasn't until the patient presented here that we were
able to get an up-close and personal look and photograph the skin,"
said Lucy Chen, M.D., a Jackson Health System dermatology resident and
lead author of the case study. "Any doctor now has a visual sense
of the rash to properly diagnose and refer patients to the appropriate
specialists."

The young woman whose case is detailed in the report was 23-weeks pregnant
in July 2016 and had experienced three days of low-grade fever, a widespread
rash and sore throat. The rash consisted of small pink bumps on the patient's
chest, back of her arms, legs, palms and soles, said Chen, who saw the
patient upon admission. Her symptoms later advanced to muscle and joint
pain. The patient tested positive for Zika although neither she nor her
partner had traveled outside of the U.S. The case was confirmed by the
Miami-Dade County Department of Health as the first non-travel-associated
case of Zika in the U.S.

The virus was present in her system for two weeks in urine samples and
six weeks in blood samples. Tests, thus far, on the patient's infant
show normal development, head size and intracranial anatomy, with no calcifications.
The infant, who was born in October 2016, did not test positive for Zika.

Zika virus, a mosquito-borne virus, is transmitted by the
Aedes Aegypti mosquito. As Miami-Dade County has the highest number of locally-transmitted
and travel-related Zika cases in the U.S., University of Miami physicians
at Jackson Memorial Hospital are uniquely positioned to document cases
of Zika in adults and children and contribute to the growing knowledge
of the virus, which has heavily impacted countries throughout Latin American,
the Caribbean and parts of the U.S.

Christine Curry, M.D., Ph.D., who leads the care of Zika-infected pregnant
women at the University of Miami and Jackson Health Systems, said the
patient is "an example of how the virus can circulate in the body
of a pregnant woman for more than the typical one to two weeks."
While there isn't enough definitive evidence, Curry, an assistant
professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the UM Miller School of Medicine,
said some tests suggest that the virus may have a tendency to linger longer
in pregnant women.

In addition to Chen and Curry, the case study was co-authored by George
W. Elgart, M.D., professor and Vice Chair of Education for the Department
of Dermatology and Jackson Health System dermatology resident Farheen
Hafeez, M.D.

Chen said people who experience a rash often do not seek care from a provider
until it has cleared up. However, as Miami-Dade County is ground zero
for the U.S. Zika outbreak, physicians and health workers have been on
heightened alert for patients presenting with symptoms associated with Zika.

UM and Jackson have taken a multidisciplinary approach to combating Zika
transmissions, caring for patients and studying cases.

Chen and a team in the UM Department of Dermatology took a biopsy of the
skin and noted seeing neutrophil cells, which Chen said are not commonly
present with viral rashes but help fight infections.

"This is an interesting finding but we would need to study additional
cases to determine whether these cells help distinguish Zika rashes from
other viral rashes," said Chen.

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